In “good” literature, everything is a symbol (vampires represent selfishness, exploitation temptation) and symbols are combined in patterns. Reading literature like a professor means building a large enough collection of symbols and patterns so that when you read a book you identify the symbols and patterns used.
I find Mortimer Adler’s approach in How to read a book more valuable (What is this book about? What is being said and how? Is this book true in whole or in part? So what?).
This is probably a very superficial analysis because I read so little, but I’m ok with that because what I saw doesn’t look promising.